Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne viral disease that causes fever and severe joint pain. The disease was first recognized in 1952 during an outbreak in southern Tanzania. It is a ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus that belongs to the alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae. The name “chikungunya” derives from a word in the Kimakonde language of southern Tanzania, meaning “to become contorted”, and describes the stooped appearance of sufferers with joint pain (arthralgia).
Chikungunya is transmitted to humans by the bites of infected female mosquitoes. Most commonly, the mosquitoes involved are Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These two species can also transmit other mosquito-borne viruses, including dengue. They bite throughout daylight hours, although there may be peaks of activity in the early morning and late afternoon. link. The most common symptoms of infection are fever and joint pain. link
What are the symptoms of Chikungunya?
Most people recover fully, with symptoms settling in 3-10 days. For some people, joint pain may continue for months, or even years. Death from complications of chikungunya is very rare, but the virus sometimes causes severe problems, mostly in older adults with other chronic illnesses. link
- Most people infected with chikungunya virus will develop some symptoms.
- Symptoms usually begin 3–7 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito.
- The most common symptoms are fever and joint pain.
- Other symptoms may include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling, or rash.
- Chikungunya disease does not often result in death, but the symptoms can be severe and disabling.
- Most patients feel better within a week. In some people, the joint pain may persist for months.
- People at risk for more severe disease include newborns infected around the time of birth, older adults (≥65 years), and people with medical conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, or heart disease.
- Once a person has been infected, he or she is likely to be protected from future infections.
- Drink plenty of fluids
- Take paracetamol or similar to reduce fever and pain.
- Take plenty of rest
- Do NOT take aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs until dengue can be eliminated
- Talk to your doctor if you are taking medicine for other medical conditions.
There is no vaccine available.
There were no autochthonous cases of Chikungunya detected in Europe, Australia or the Pacific in 2020. link. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) in their report dated 18th June 2020 report the following outbreaks;
Bolivia: In 2020, as of 30 May, 1 492 cases have been reported of which 44 were laboratory confirmed.
Brazil: In 2020, as of 17 May, Brazil reported 37 387 probable cases including nine associated deaths. Among these cases, 39%
were reported in Bahia state and 31% in Espirito Santo state.
Costa Rica: In 2020, as of 23 May, 30 cases have been reported .
Colombia: In 2020, as of 30 May, Colombia has reported 135 cases, five of which are laboratory confirmed.
El Salvador: In 2020, as of 30 May, El Salvador reported 54 suspected cases. For the same period in 2019, they reported 176 suspected cases. Guatemala: In 2020, as of 30 May, 24 cases have been reported
Honduras: In 2020, as of 2 May, 16 cases have been reported
Nicaragua: In 2020, as of 3 May, Nicaragua reported seven suspected cases. Among these cases, none were confirmed. During
the same period in 2019, 57 suspected cases were reported.
Paraguay: In 2020, as of 16 May, two cases have been reported
Peru: In 2020, as of 7 June, Peru has reported 59 cases.
Venezuela: In 2020, as of 2 May, 27 cases have been reported in Venezuela. Among these cases, two were laboratory confirmed.
India: According to Indian health authorities, in 2020 and as of 1 March, chikungunya cases have been reported in Karnataka (53)
and Maharashtra (13) states.
Malaysia: In 2020 and as of 23 of May, 548 cases have been reported across the country, with most of the cases being reported
in Perak region according to Malaysia’s Ministry of Health.
Thailand: In 2020, as of 7 June, the country has reported 1 946 cases with no deaths associated affecting 54 provinces across the
Yemen: According to media sources, a Chikungunya outbreak has been declared in the city of Aden, in Yemen. According to the
same sources, the outbreak started at the end of April 2020 and up to 3 000 cases, including 50 associated deaths, have been
Republic of Congo: In 2020, as of 9 February, 37 suspected cases have been reported in the country.
Sudan: According to media sources, in June 2020, a new chikungunya outbreak has been reported in Kassala state. To date,
seven cases have been reported in the same region that registered a large outbreak two years ago
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