Useful Information

The Hypodermic Needle

This day in 1801 the inventor of the hypodermic needle, Francis Rynd, was born in Dublin, Ireland into a privileged family. He entered the prestigious Trinity College to study medicine at the age of 16 and then interned in the charitable Meath Hospital who looked after the poor of Dublin, where he worked free of […]


Ebola Outbreak

The World Health Organization has just announced that an outbreak has been detected northwest of Democratic Republic of the Congo in the Équateur province. This comes at a particularly difficult time in the Congo as it has just come to the end of a long outbreak in the eastern part of the county. The country […]

Covid-19 Vaccines

COVID-19 Vaccination?

Sinovac Biotech, a Chinese biopharmaceutical company has said that it is 99% sure that their COVID-19 vaccine will work. Sinovac Biotech published results of the vaccine named CoronaVac in the academic journal Science last month that protected monkeys from infection by the coronavirus. In April the company reached Stage 2 of the COVID-19 vaccine trial […]

Lyme Disease

Lyme Disease – Vaccination on its way?

Lyme Disease (Lyme Borreliosis) is a bacterial infection that is spread to humans by infected ticks. The infection was first known as “Lyme arthritis” after a cluster of cases were appeared in Old Lyme, Connecticut, USA in the late 1970s. This is now the most common tick-borne disease in the USA and Europe. Research shows […]

Useful Information

The immune system

What is an immune system? How does the body fight infection? When germs, such as bacteria or viruses, invade the body, they attack and proliferate. This invasion, called an infection, is what causes illness. The immune system uses several tools to fight infection. Blood contains red blood cells, for carrying oxygen to tissues and organs, […]

Covid-19 Other

Herd Immunity

What is it and why are we hearing so much about it during COVID-19? Herd immunity  is a form of indirect protection from transmissible diseases or pandemics which occur when a large percentage of a population builds a resistance to an infection, either by vaccination or by previous infections, thereby providing a measure of protection for […]

Covid-19 Influenza-Flu

COVID-19 v Influenza

Both COVID-19 and influenza (flu) are respiratory illnesses that are spread from person to person. Both are viral infections. Tiny droplets containing the viruses can pass from someone with the infection to someone else, typically through the nose and mouth through coughing and sneezing. The virus can also live on surfaces. link As the COVID-19 […]

Lyssavirus Rabies


Rabies and Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) are acute viral encephalomyelitis caused by a lyssavirus. Animals in Australia do not have rabies link. Outside Australia, rabies occurs in dogs, cats, monkeys and foxes. ABLV does occur in Australian bats. Rabies can be transmitted from rabid bats and rabid animals to humans via a bite or scratch. Animals […]


Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2-19 Antibody Test

On 3rd May, 2020 Roche’s COVID-19 antibody test received FDA Emergency Use Authorisation in the USA and is available in markets accepting the CE mark. The test already has approval from medical regulators in the EU The blood test looks for antibodies to see if a person has already had the virus and might now […]

Anthrax Vaccines


Anthrax is caused by a bacteria called baccilus anthracis. Anthrax is a rod shaped gram positive bacteria which is found naturally in the soil and routinely attacks grazing animals such as cattle, sheep and goats who are then infected through ingestions of contaminated soil. It also infects wild animals worldwide. Anthrax is spread when its spores […]